Written by Sarah Easter; Emergency Communication Officer for CARE Austria
When a baby is born in a rural village in Northern Bangladesh, the mother puts honey in its mouth, because then the baby will learn how to talk sweetly. “We had misbeliefs and didn’t know how important it is to breastfeed the newborn with colostrum within the first hour,” says Asma Akter, 30, mother of Araf, seven months. Colostrum or the first form of breastmilk is nutrient-dense and high in antibodies and antioxidants to build a newborn baby's immune system. It changes to breast milk within two to four days after the baby is born. Colostrum is thicker and more yellow than traditional breast milk.
There were many misbeliefs and the access to knowledge in this small village, surrounded by rice fields, with its many goats and cows, was limited. “I didn’t know about health check-ups for pregnant women,” says Priyanka, 25, mother of Pollobi, 2. “Many women died during their pregnancy or while giving birth. This was normal and a risk we all took. The women gave birth at their homes, now most of us go to the community clinic.” According to a study by the World Health Organization (WHO), Bangladesh has made progress in bringing down maternal mortality, from 441 death per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 123 deaths in 2020. A rate that is still very high. The Sustainable Development Goal Target 3.1 stipulates reducing the maternal mortality rate to less than 70 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030.
Most of the complications from which women die are preventable. Access to maternal care and skilled birth attendants is believed to be of utmost importance in reducing maternal mortality. Almost half of all births in Bangladesh still take place at home without the help of skilled birth attendants. The WHO study shows that only 30 percent of mothers who have had no previous education in comparison to 63 percent of mothers with secondary education had access to a skilled birth attendant. Additionally depending on how poor a woman is, the less likely she will have a skilled health professional at her side when she is giving birth. Only 32 percent of the poorest mothers in comparison to 86 percent of the richest have access to skilled delivery support.
“I also learned a lot about what to eat during pregnancy. My husband is a day labourer, he works in other peoples’ fields. It is hard to support our livelihood. Without the community garden from JANO, we only ate rice and potatoes. Now we also eat vegetables and fruits daily,” says Priyanka. When the mother is anemic, then the baby is born malnourished. Close to one-third of children under five are affected by stunting in Bangladesh, which has implications for longer-term cognitive development and their future as adults. Poverty hinders access to the knowledge and services necessary for early childhood development, and this is reflected in poor households’ higher rates of stunting, wasting, and mortality.
Asma’s son Araf is still slightly malnourished. His mother regularly goes to the community clinic for a health check-up. Through JANO, she learnt that she has access to the clinic and how important monthly check-ups are. “I learnt a lot about nutrition. We now have access to nutrition service and I now know how to feed Araf correctly,” says Asma. Before the JANO project started in this village, access to nutritious food was difficult. Food prices are rising. Four years ago the price for 1 kilo of potatoes was BDT 7-8, now it is more than BDT 20. Additionally, most families didn’t know how to grow their own vegetables. Now, the JANO community and household gardens provide nutritious vegetables and fruit. “We changed our way of cooking. Before we just cooked what we had without thinking about a balanced diet,” says Asma. When she birthed her first son, she had complications during his delivery. “I didn’t know what I know today. With Araf I didn’t have any complications. I am very happy that he is healthy and growing stronger every day,” concludes Asma